Clark/Kozma Debate Paper MEDT 8463 For this position paper, you will research the literature on how instructional media and emerging technologies influence

Clark/Kozma Debate Paper
MEDT 8463

For this position paper, you will research the literature on how instructional media and emerging
technologies influence or impact student learning. Then, you will review, critique, synthesize,
and use key ideas from the research literature to write a persuasive paper that will support your
position on the role of technology in student learning—positive, negative, or no impact.

The famous debate of Clark versus Kozma has been ongoing for several decades. Clark argues
that the method of instruction is what counts most in student learning. Kozma argues that media
can influence learning. Read the article by Clark (Media Will Never Influence Learning), and
then read the response article by Kozma (Learning with Media). Links to both articles are posted
in this module in CourseDen. You should also review additional articles by other researchers
and scholars that you find through your own research.

Think about how the arguments of Clark and Kozma are still relevant today and also how the
arguments may be changed today. Review the articles on Sweller’s Cognitive Load Theory
(Paas and Ayers, 2014) and Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer, 2019).
Links to these materials are also posted in this module in CourseDen. Summarize the ideas of
Sweller and Mayer, and explain how their theories may support the argument of Clark and/or
Kozma. Discuss how the theories of Sweller and Mayer may be used to resolve the media
debate. Include examples of current research (within the last 5-10 years is preferred) on media
and instructional technology, as well as reflect on your experiences as a learner and/or
educator/professional, to support your explanation.

Write a approx. 3-page paper answering and exploring the following questions:
● What are the viewpoints of Clark and Kozma? Write a brief summary that explains both

viewpoints with supporting research.
● What is your position on the debate? Do you support Clark’s or Kozma’s argument?

Explain your reasons why.
● What are Sweller’s Cognitive Load Theory and Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia

Learning? Summarize the two theories.
● How can Cognitive Load Theory and Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning inform the

Clark/Kozma debate?
● What current research efforts support your position on the debate?

Your paper should be approximately 3 pages double-spaced (Times New Roman, 12-point font).
This page limit is not strictly reinforced, so do not worry about exceeding this limit. Papers will
be graded based on content, organization, clarity, presentation, and completeness. Think about
using the topics listed in the Assignment Checklist (below) as headings to organize your paper.
You must take your writing in this class seriously. Papers with numerous structural, grammatical,
or mechanical errors will not be successful. Consider finding a writing tutor or editor to proofread
your papers. Any citations used in any paper for this class must strictly follow APA guidelines.

Assignment Checklist (200 points)
● Professionalism (20 points)

○ Submitted a document in narrative form with no grammatical or formatting issues
(10 points)

○ Adhered to APA format for references and in-text citations (5 points)
○ Met page requirement (5 points)

● Content (180 points)
○ Summarized the viewpoints of Clark and Kozma (36 points)
○ Claimed a position in the Clark/Kozma debate (36 points)
○ Summarized Sweller’s Cognitive Load Theory and Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of

Multimedia Learning (36 points)
○ Provided rationale for how Sweller’s and Mayer’s theories can inform the debate

(36 points)
○ Provided examples of current research (within the last 5 years) and personal

experience that informs the debate (36 points)

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